Every generation likes to think the preceding ones were dumb and up to no good. But history narrates awe-inspiring stories of advanced civilizations and their contribution to art, music, science and many other areas. In this piece, we talk about an advanced and tricky way to gauge the intellect and intelligence of examinees in ancient China.
The eight-legged essay is eight-legged, literally and metaphorically. The essay was constructed around a specific structure.
Eight legged essay
Are you already wondering whether you would have been terrible at it were God to destine you to be born among ancient Chinese? Well, tell you what? You probably should! Boy, is the essay tricky! The opening comprises of two sentences of prose, providing a brief intro to the topic of the essay.
Evaluative standard for the eight-legged essay in the imperial examinations of the Qing Dynasty
Very, very tricky part! You are required to construct a particular number of parallel sentence pairs. This part acts as an extension to the previous part. Whatever points were life in the previous section can be discussed here. It requires to be written in a serious tone, with the content rooted in pragmatism.
This is the part where you can let your creativity flow. Wrap up the essay with powerful concluding remarks. It requires to be wrapped up in a strictly defined word limit.
Eight-Legged Essay - Oxford Reference
Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, drawing general conclusions from the relevant data"; the abstract-universal: In this pole "we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions", who are never personal and who mention the particular facts of experience. Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays " In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt", this is still an alternative meaning; the Frenchman Michel de Montaigne was the first author to describe his work as essays. For the rest of his life, he continued revising published essays and composing new ones.
Francis Bacon's essays, published in book form in , , , were the first works in English that described themselves as essays.
Eight legged essay
Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in , according to the Oxford English Dictionary. English essayists included Sir Thomas Browne.
In France , Michel de Montaigne's three volume Essais in the mid s contain over examples regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. During the Age of Enlightenment , essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public; the early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English — William Hazlitt , Charles Lamb , Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects.
In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays. Virginia Woolf , Edmund Wilson , Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays; as with the novel, essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since the beginnings of Japanese literature. Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are. As a politician during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor , he held the position of Grand Secretariat.
Wang Ao was an essayist , considered a master on eight-legged essays. Wang Ao was originated from Suzhou , born into a clerical family, he passed the imperial examination. After he passed the imperial examinations, he served at Hanlin Academy. In , Wang was retired in his native home Suzhou. Here, he enjoyed great respect, he died on 11 March at the age of After Wang Ao's death, the Jiajing Emperor gave him the pusthomous name of Wenke, which meant "Cultivated and Honest"; the following is a translation of an original eight-legged essay , written by Wang Ao.
Essay Topic: "If the people enjoy sufficiency how could the ruler suffer from insufficiency? If the people are rich, how can it stand to reason that the ruler alone is poor? With inexhaustible supplies, what anxiety is there for lack of preparedness in emergency? If these were insufficient, the people will supply them in full.
Food and delicacies and drinks are abundant for entertainment of state guests.
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If these were insufficient, the people will take care of the needs. The establishment of the tithe was for the good of the people, but in this usage lies the sufficiency of national expenditure. Where is there any need to increase taxation to attain national wealth. Diplomatic gift A diplomatic gift is a gift given by a diplomat , politician or leader when visiting a foreign country. The gift is reciprocated by the host; the use of diplomatic gifts dates back to the ancient world and givers have competed to outdo each other in the lavishness of their gifts.
Examples include silks given to the West by the Byzantines in the early Middle Ages , the luxury book, panda diplomacy by the Chinese in the twentieth century. After the Congress of Vienna , Rundell and Rundell, goldsmiths to the British royal family and government, prepared 22 snuff-boxes to a value of guineas each to be given as diplomatic gifts. Diplomatic gifts have the potential to seal international friendships, but to be rebuffed, to seem mismatched, or to accidentally send the wrong message. A gift of a "British" table tennis table to President Obama seemed ideal until it was revealed that it was designed in Britain but made in China, evoking worries about the decline of British manufacturing industry.
Diplomatic gifts take diverse forms: Jacoby, D. Guangxu Emperor This is a Manchu name. The Guangxu Emperor , personal name Zaitian, was the 11th emperor of the Qing dynasty , the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China proper , his reign lasted from to , but in practice he ruled, under Empress Dowager Cixi's influence, only from to He initiated the Hundred Days' Reform , but was abruptly stopped when the empress dowager launched a coup in , after which he was put under house arrest until his death, his regnal name, "Guangxu", means "glorious succession".
Zaitian was the second son of Yixuan , his primary spouse Yehenara Wanzhen , a younger sister of Empress Dowager Cixi.
On 12 January , the Tongzhi Emperor , died without a son to succeed him. Breaking the imperial convention that a new emperor must always be of a generation after that of the previous emperor, candidates were considered from the generation of the Tongzhi Emperor. Empress Dowager Ci'an suggested choosing one of Prince Gong's sons to be the next emperor, but was overruled by her co-regent, Empress Dowager Cixi.
Instead, Cixi nominated Zaitian and the imperial clan agreed with her choice because Zaitian was younger than other adoptable children of the same generation. Zaitian was named heir and successor to his late uncle, the Xianfeng Emperor , rather than his cousin and predecessor, the Tongzhi Emperor, so as to maintain the father-son succession law, he ascended to the throne at the age of four and adopted "Guangxu" as his regnal name, therefore he is known as the "Guangxu Emperor".
He was adopted by Cixi. Beginning in , the Guangxu Emperor was taught by Weng Tonghe , involved in the disastrous upbringing of the Tongzhi Emperor yet somehow managed to be exonerated of all possible charges. In Weng's diaries during those days, Guangxu was seen with swollen eyes, had poor concentration and was seeking consolation from Weng. Weng too expressed his concern that Cixi was the one, suffering from chronic ill health, not Ci'an. During this time, the imperial eunuchs abused their influence over the boy emperor; the Guangxu Emperor had reportedly begun to hold some audiences on his own as an act of necessity.
In , the Guangxu Emperor was old enough to begin to rule in his own right, but the previous year, several courtiers, including Prince Chun and Weng Tonghe, had petitioned Empress Dowager Cixi to postpone her retirement from the regency. Despite Cixi's agreement to remain as regent, by the Guangxu Emperor had begun to write comments on memorials to the throne.
In the spring of , he partook in his first field-plowing ceremony, by the end of the year he had begun to rule under Cixi's supervision. In February , in preparation for Cixi's retirement, the Guangxu Emperor was married. Much to the emperor's dislike, Cixi selected Jingfen , to be empress. She became known as Empress Longyu, she selected a pair of sisters, who became Consorts Jin and Zhen, to be the emperor's concubines. The following week, with the Guangxu Emperor married, Cixi retired from the regency.
After the Guangxu Emperor began formal rule, Empress Dowager Cixi continued to influence his decisions and actions, despite residing several months of the year at the Summer Palace. Weng Tonghe observed that while the emperor attended to day-to-day state affairs, in more difficult cases the emperor and the Grand Council sought Cixi's advice.
In fact, the emperor journeyed to the Summer Palace to pay his respects to his aunt and to discuss state affairs with her. In March , the Guangxu Emperor received the foreign ministers to China at an audience in the "Pavilion of Purple Light", in what is now part of Zhongnanhai , something, done by the Tongzhi Emperor in ; that summer, under pressure from the foreign legations and in response to revolts in the Yangtze River valley that were targeting Christian missionaries, the emperor issued an edict ordering Christians to be placed under state protection.
The Guangxu Emperor, while growing up had been instilled with the importance of frugality. In , he tried to implement a series of draconian measures to reduce expenditures by the Imperial Household Department , which proved to be one of his few administrative successes, but it was only a partial victory, as he had to approve higher expenditures than he would have liked to meet Cixi's needs. During the war though the Guangxu Emperor was nominally the sovereign ruler of the Qing Empire , officials ignored him and instead sent their memorials to Cixi for her approval. Two sets of Grand Council memoranda were created, one for the emperor and the other for the empress dowager, a practice that continued until it was rendered unnecessary by the events in the autumn of Following the Qing Empire's defeat and forced agreement to the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki , the Guangxu Emperor expressed his wish to abdicate ; the emperor and the Qing government faced further humiliation in late when the German Empire used the murders of two priests in Shandong Province as an excuse to occupy Jiaozhou Bay , prompting a " scramble for concessions" by other foreign powers.